Because the community-building structures I have been using with my advisory
students have been so successful, I have decided to bring advisory principles
and practices to the rest of my classes. Although I know I can’t take the time
to run full length meetings in every class, I want to build close-knit,
friendly, positive learning communities in all of my classes, all day

At first, doing anything “all day long” may sound like a lot of
work, but I have been able to do it this year by thinking of advisory not as a
separate entity, but as an integral part of the whole day. I have embarked on
this journey believing that success depends upon:

  • building strong, positive relationships with and among students
  • involving students in planning and reflecting on their learning
  • establishing classroom routines that support community

In a
community-centered classroom students are engaged learners and thoughtful
participants in a social group. They feel accepted, respected, and valued. I
believe all of these positive experiences enhance self-esteem and

The details… Periods 2, 3, 4, and beyond
As soon as
students arrive at the start of a class period, I give the signal for silence.
Next, we greet each other in one of many ways. Sometimes we use the Circle
Greeting, during which two students shake hands, greet each other using first
names, and pass the greeting around the classroom; the “audience”-those not
greeting at a given moment-watches. This is followed by the reading of a “class
letter,” a message which keeps students informed of important classroom
information and asks relevant academic questions that often lead to brief class
discussions such as, “What book have you enjoyed reading lately?” The class
letter is written on chart paper and placed on an easel so it can be read as
students enter the room. Markers are nearby, so students may record their
responses on the chart paper. This process takes five to seven

Building positive relationships with teacher

Of course, these “all day long” advisory principles and
practices don’t go very far if we teachers aren’t doing all we can to forge
positive relationships with each and every student. This is no easy task! I’ve
learned to use language that is careful in tone (stays neutral) and is specific
and descriptive, to help build a foundation for vital, healthy

Another relationship-builder: I try to express genuine
interest in each of my students. I make a point of having quick conversations
“at the margins,” if you will, about family members, pets, soccer teams,
hobbies, etc. I also express genuine interest in students by listening to them
attentively when they speak – thus, I model the kind of listening behavior that
I want students to practice. When they are finished speaking, I respond to them
in a positive manner, sometimes share a related experience, or invite more
dialogue. Middle school students are acutely aware of who listens to them and
who doesn’t, and many have a need to be the center of attention.

As I try
to stay positive and upbeat and encourage them as much as possible, I’ve noticed
that the students in my classes are more respectful, more functional, and more

Building community with routines
Being well organized
and providing students with structures and routines that help them understand
what’s expected of them also contributes to the classroom community. In my
language arts classroom, I have taken to posting a “skeleton” period plan for
each day of the week on the wall. In addition to the class letter as they enter
the room, I’ve taught my students to read this daily plan. Consequently, my
students have started to make constructive suggestions regarding our daily
plans, and I pay attention to student ideas for making our daily or weekly
structure better.

For example, one student recently suggested we move our
writers’ workshop from Thursday to Wednesday. With this change, he reasoned,
students could finish their writing on Wednesday night and devote Thursday night
to studying for their weekly vocabulary quiz on Friday. I discussed the idea
with all of my classes, then made the change. All of my students felt empowered
and shared a strong sense of acknowledgment, affirmation, purpose, and
community. I’ve found when students are involved in decision-making, positive
outcomes occur, and positive outcomes greatly enhance classroom

Building community through reflection
students into the habit of reflection-and carving out time at the end of each
class period for them to do so-is another important aspect of the
community-centered classroom. It is another avenue students can use to
participate in classroom decisions. Each Friday, my students complete a weekly
reflection sheet that asks them to indicate:

  • a “learning highlight” for the week, with a brief explanation
  • something to be improved, and a suggestion for how it might be improved
  • something they would like me to know

Their answers give me
important insight into their perceptions. Reflections also send a message to
students that their teacher is interested in and cares about their

Building community through social

Assigning small-group and partner work on a regular basis and
in different ways has also helped me to build community in all my classes. When
students learn to work positively with all members of the classroom (not just
friends), this sends a strong, important community message: we value and work
with everyone. When students work cooperatively with each other to complete an
academic task, they connect and share the experience and the

We end every class with an acknowledgment, such as the
Alligator Clap (extending arms out straight and opening and closing them as if
alligator jaws). On a volunteer basis, anyone who wishes to acknowledge or thank
anyone else for an act of kindness, piece of insight shared, lighthearted
moment, etc., may publicly thank that person, explain why he’s thanking her, and
lead the entire class in a simultaneous clap. Acknowledgment provides a tangible
expression that we have enjoyed our time together. It is the final
community-building activity of the period, and sends students on their way with
a feeling of belonging and a sense of accomplishment. Students return to class
the next day eager to participate in their classroom

Snapshots of academic and behavioral benefits
I had
a number of students, some of whom had been struggling in other classes, show
dramatic improvement in my classroom. Jake was one such student. He experienced
a turbulent sixth grade year. He started 7th grade poorly, but quickly turned
around in my community classroom. I looped with Jake’s class, so I also have him
in 8th grade. Through a community classroom connection, Jake established a
positive relationship with his classmates and with me. He became an engaged
learner, which was a new experience for him. His behavioral outbursts were
greatly diminished. He commented that he “never did so much school work before.”
Jake has had no behavioral outbursts in my classroom this year, where he is now
working on improving his grades.

Allen, another of my students, advocated
for himself to be placed in my eighth grade community classroom. At the time
that he entered the program, he had been permanently removed from three of his
core classes. He was suspended continuously. After entering the community
classroom, he became an engaged learner, passed all his subjects, and was
infrequently disciplined by school administrators. He was never disciplined in
my classroom because his behavior was outstanding.

Conclusions and
further work to be done

My students are engaged, empowered participants
in a supportive classroom community this year, thanks to the implementation of
advisory principles and best practices all day long. I still need to work on
engaging some of my most challenging students, and I’m planning for that next
level of community-building in my classroom. I am excited about the positive
social and academic results I observe in my students, and I look forward to
their continued growth as our classroom community continues to

Cathy-Ann Chapman teaches eighth grade Language Arts at
Greenfield Middle School in Greenfield MA.

This article first
appeared in the Origins’ publication Developmental Designs: A Middle School
, Winter 2009